Damage to the fallopian tubes is another common cause for female infertility, occluding or partially obstructing the tube and thus preventing the egg from travelling down to be fertilized by the sperm. Tubal damage can result from:
Endometriosis is a disease in which tissue that normally grows inside the uterus grows outside it. The main symptoms are pelvic pain and infertility. Nearly half of those affected have chronic pelvic pain, while in 70% pain occurs during menstruation. Pain during sex is also common. Infertility occurs in up to half of women affected. Less common symptoms include urinary or bowel symptoms. About 25% of women have no symptoms. Endometriosis can have both social and psychological effects.
The cause is not entirely clear. Risk factors include having a family history of the condition. Most often the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and tissue around the uterus and ovaries are affected; however, in rare cases it may also occur in other parts of the body.
Endometriosis is estimated to occur in roughly 6–10% of women. It is most common in those in their thirties and forties.